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英语连词



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英语连词



连词是一种起连接作用的词。它用来把单词;短语或句子连在一起。连词按其性质分为两大类;并列连词和从属连词。

1. 并列连词 并列连词用来连接属于同一层次并具有相同句法功能的词;短语或句子。并列连词包括:基本并列连词如 and, or , but , 关联连词如 either...or , neither...nor , not only...but also ,both ...and, whether...or 等;介于并列连词与从属连词之间的连词;介于并列连词与从属连词或介词之间的结构如 as well as , as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等;此外还有些'半连接词',一些语法学家把它们称为连接副词,如 nevertheless, however, meanwhile, otherwise, likewise 等,它们在句中做连接性状语。这类连词主要是从逻辑上,而不是从形式上连接句子,其关系比较松散。

1) 表示意义转折和对比的并列连词

常见的有:but , while, whereas, still, yet , nevertheless, likewise, anyway , only 等。例如:

The bike was quite old but in excellent condition. (转折)
It never rains but it pours. (对比)

能表示上述转折概念的还有 conversely , on the contrary, by this time, all the same , fortunately, on the other hand , in the meantime 等词语。

2) 表示选择的并列连词

常见的有: or, whether...or, either...or, otherwise 等。例如:

You can stay at home or go to the cinema.
Heat the water, otherwise it will freeze.
You may either stay here or go with us.
Whether in school or at home, Jim is always cheerful.

Either ...or 和 whether...or 表示选择,其意义比单用 or 要强,但由 whetrher...or 构成的并列结构一般只能担任句子的从属成分。上例中最后一句, whether...or 结构在句中担任句子的从属成分。 Either ...or 和 or 一样,可以连接两个并列的独立分句,而 whether...or 则不可以。 or 用于表示否定的条件意义时,有时可与连用。例如:

Hurry up, or else you'll miss the last bus.

Or 连接主语时,如主语都是单数,动词则取单数形式;如主语都是复数,动词则取复数形式,如果主语有的是复数,动词则取复数形式,如果主语有的是单数,有的是复数,动词的数则与它靠近的主语的数相一致。例如:

Either Tom or his sisters are coming.

连接两个主语时,动词的数也应与靠近他的主语的数相一致。例如:

Neither he nor I am a good student.

3) 表示因果意义的并列并列连词

常见的有: for ,so ,therfore ,hence ,thus, accordingly, consepuently, on that account, in that case 等。例如:

The fuel must have beeenfinished, for the engine stopped.
It rained , therefore the game was called off.

表示原因的并列连词只有 for ,它所引导的分句只是对前一分句补充说明理由或推断原因。 for 引导的分句只能置于句末,而且必须用逗号与前一分句隔开。上面所提到的 so,therefore 等词,有的语法学家把它们做为连接性状语。

4) 表示联合关系的并列连词

常见的有: and, both...and, neither...nor, not only... but also 等。例如:

No man ,no animal, and no house is to be found on the island.
Without both money and talent, science would progress slowly.
Neither the students nor the teacher has read the paper.
Not only the students but also the teacher has been there.

从上述诸例可以看出,当 neither...nor, not only ...but also 连接主语时,动词的数则与靠近它的主语的数相一致。 Both ...and 不能连接两个以上的并列成分,也不能连接分句。例如: 误:Both Mary swept the floor and Nancy mopped it.
正:Mary swept the floor and Nancy mopped it.

5) 其它并列连词

常见的有: as well as, more than, rather than, no less than 等.

(1) as well as 表示 '同' 和 '也' 的意义

as well as 用作并列连词时它意义相当于 not only...but also, 但侧重点在后一并列成分上而 as well as 侧重点却在前一并列成分上 ,A as well as B=not only B but also A. 例如 It is important for you as well as for me. 这件事不仅对我重要对你也很重要

(2) more than 表示而不是之意. 例如:

The manager, more than the trades union, is responsible for the present impasse. 目前的僵局应由经理而不是工会负责。

(3) rather than 表示 '而不是' 之意. 例如:

It was what he meant rather than what he said.
I rather than he am to blame.

(4) no less than 表示 ' 同 ... 一样 ' 之意. 例如:

He no less than you is my friend.

从上述诸例可以看出当 as well as ,more than, rather than, no less than 连接两个成分作主语时谓语动词应于第一个成分的数相一致. 在使用并列连词时我们应该注意:

(1) 并列连词不可以连用. 例如:

误 She never said she was homesick, and but she was.
正 She never said she was homesick, but she was.
误 I gave him all he asked for, or but he is still not satisfied.
正 I gave him all he asked for, but he is still not satisfied.

(2) 有些连接性状语副词可以和某些从属连词对应使用. 例如:

If the part is faulty, then replace it.
Just as the sun is the central body of the solar system, so the nucleus is the core of the atom.
Although it was barely four o'clock, yet the lights were already on. 但 although(though) 不能同 but 连用 如:

误 Although it was barely four o'clock,but the lights were already on.
正 Although it was barely four o'cloc,the lights were already on./It was barely four o'clock, but the lights were already on.

(3) 在 for 或 so that 引出的分句中如果主语与前一分句的主语所指相同其主语不可以省略. 同样, 如果第二个分句是由连接副词引出的其主语通常也不可省略. 例如:

误 He shook his head, for thought differently.
正 He shook his head ,for he thought differently.
误 They were trying to save so that could buy a house.
正 They were trying to save so that they could buy a house.

2. 从属连词

从属连词用来引导名词从句和各类的状语从句。

从属连词按词形分为简单从属连词,复合从属连词,关连从属连词。

1) 简单从属连词

常见的有:after, although, as, because, before, if, lest,once, since, that, till, unless, until, when, where, whether, while 等。例如:

I couldn't get a grant unless I had five years' teaching experience.

2) 复合从属连词

由两个或两个以上单词构成的从属连词,如: as if, as far as , as soon as, according as , in case , no matter who(how,what,when, where), rather than, for all that , given( that), in order that, now (that), on condition that , (so) that ,provided/providing(that), inasmuch as , insofar as 等。例如:

She was so moved that tears came to her eyes.
Forgive them, inasmuch as they are young.

3) 关联从属连词 由两个关联构成的,如: as...as, nore(less,-er)...than, no sooner...than, so ...as , so...that,such...sa , the...the, whether...or 等,例如:

The easier, the better. She works harder than all of us.

使用从属连词时,应该注意

(1) 由从属连词引导的状语从句,其位置通常是可变的。例

I learned a lot of French while I was in Paris.

(2) 并列连词之间之前不可以加其它连词,而从属连词之前可以加并列连词;连接副词。例如:

I teach not because teaching is easy for me , but because I like the pace of the academic calendar.


使用连词时, 还应该注意:

1. because, for, since, as 的区别

because语气强, 表示客观必然原因:例如: He is absent, because he is ill. 因为生病,所以他没来。

比较:He is absent, for he is busy. (“生病”是“缺席”的必然原因,“忙”不是必然原因。)

for 语气轻,表示非客观必然的原因,是主观可改变结果的原因,甚至是猜测可能的原因:

He must be ill, for he is absent. “缺席”不一定是“生病”,只是交流猜测。

for 不能放句首,它是并列连词.

since, as 都是不讲自明的原因, 是已知的原因.

Since I am a boy, let me carry the case.
As you don't feel well,you had better stay at home.

1. 我不进去了,因为我爸爸在里面. I won't go in .for my father is there.
2. 昨晚一定是下雨了,因为地很湿. It must have rained last night,for the ground is web.
3. 地是湿的,因为昨晚下雨了. The ground is wet, because it rained last night.
4. 因为不高兴,他不想出去了. He diden't wanted to go out,for he was unhappy.
5. 既然你工作忙,你就不必跟我们一道去了。 Since/As you are busy, you had better not go with us.
6. 他付给我比别人少的钱,因为我是个女的. He paid me less than the others, for I'm female.
7. 他付给我比别人少的钱,仅仅因为我是个女的. He paid me less than the others, only because I'm female.
8. 既然大家都在这,我们开始开会吧. Since everybody is here,let's begin our meeting.

2) when,while,as引导时间状语时的异同.

when,表示时间点,时间段都可以.如状语是短暂动作时,多用when,是时间段时则三个连词都可以.

When/While/As I was walking in the street,I met a friend of mine.

只能用when 的句型:

1. 放句中,主句是进行时,从句是短暂动作,表示这时突然

I was reading in the room, when a girl shouted for help.我正在房间看书,这时突然听到有一个女孩喊救命!
2. 从句是短暂动作:When I got up, I heard the bell ring. 当我起床的时候,我听见铃响了。

只能用while的句型:

1. 表示对立予盾的对比,这时while相当于but。

I am poor while you are rich.我很穷,你却很富有。
Tom is strong,while John is weak. 汤姆很强壮,而约翰很瘦弱。

2. 表示“趁着还来得及的时候,赶快....

趁热打铁.Strike while it is hot.
趁着老师还在教室,你赶快去问他吧. You should go to ask the teacher while he is still in.

只能用as的句型:

1. 一边....一边...稳定的动作当从句,不稳定的动作当主句

他一边洗澡一边吹口哨. He whistled as he had a bath.
我一边看书一边听音乐. I listened to music as I read.

2.正如....所知道,预料的一样.... as 在此是关系代词,不能用which代替.

正如众所周知的一样,地球是圆的. As everybody can see, the earth is round.
正如我们预料的那样,他失败了。He failed as we had expected.
正如我们所预料的一样,中国足球队赢了印尼. As we had expected, Chinese Football Team beat Indian.

3. 随着时间的发展,某事变得......

As thirty years passed by,my mother's hair became gray. 三十年过去了,妈妈的头发成了银色。
As morden industry develops,more and more waste produces. 随着工业的发展,垃圾制造得越来越多。

3) as 与like的区别

1. 表示象...一样时, as接从句, like 接短语

Do everything as I do. 象我一样做。
He is/looks like his mother. 他长得像他妈妈。

2. as当介词接短语时,表示作为...不是象...一样的意思.like 当动词时,是喜欢的意思,不要搞混为象...

We should study as Lenin studied. 我们应该像列宁那样学习。
As a League Member,I should take everything in the lead. 作为一名团员,我应该起带头作用。

4) until

I'll not go untill the bell rings.
unless 条件I'll not go unless you go.除非你走我才走。
肯定句延续I waited untill he came 我一直等到他来。
He lived here until he was 90. 在90岁之前他一直住在这。
I didn't leave untill he came.直到他来我才走。
短暂not until
I won't stay with you unless you drive the dog out.除非你把狗赶跑,否则我不会和你呆在一起。

5) and, but, however, yet

顺趋势自然而然发展He studied hard and became a college student.

逆趋势转折He studied hard, but failed in the exam.

中间有逗号,语气轻用however He studied hard, however,he failed in the exam.

不能用but He studied hard, yet he failed in the exam.

Althought he studied hard, yet he failed in the exam.(yet可以与although,though连用,but不能。

6) 就近原则,对称原则,附加不理原则

谓语动词就最近距离主语原则:

Either he or his parents (is, are) wrong.
Either you or he (is, are) wrong.
(Is, Are) you or he wrong?

连词后成分对称原则:

Both ....and, neither....nor, not only.....but also.......
She can (either sing, sing either)English songs or Chinese songs.
She can (either sing, sing either)English songs or dance well.

with后名词附加不影响谓语原则

He as well as his wife and daughters (like, likes) music very much.
He with his sons (get, gets )up early every day.
I but you (are, am)wrong.


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